'Lesson Two'


{Translator, please recall that wherever you find the single quotes (' '), they are to be filled in with words from the language of the learners who are studying Transitional English.}


'Remember that the function of a word is determined by its position with respect to the verb. If the noun precedes a verb, then it acts as the subject, and if it follows the verb, then it serves as its object.'

Sòn ('singular') ït ('present') sandwich ('singular')
--(E)S ('plural') --ED ('past') --(E)S ('plural')
WIL-ït ('future')'


'A word that describes, such as 'gud', is an ADJECTIVE. In TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH the position of the adjective is normally before the noun it modifies. Consider the following examples: gud kofi (good coffee) ` '; gud tï (good tea), ` ', [adjective: gud, (good) ` '.'

'English is differentSydney Harbor, Australia from many other languages in that the adjectives do not reflect the singular or plural form of the noun. The adjectives remain unchanged with regards to these qualities. The adjective also remains unchanged even when it serves either the function of a subject or the object in a sentence.'


Gud man wil-hav gud famìli.
(A good man will have a good family.)
' ' ' ' ' .'
Gud mans wil-hav gud famìlis.
(Good men[s] will have good families.)
' ' ' ' ' .'

'In each of the examples above, the adjective gud remains in the same form for all cases.'


'Please learn the words given in each lesson by reading each one aloud until you can repeat it from memory, and then do the same for each of the words separately. Then the dialogue should be learned by heart as it appears in the lesson.'

ùngkèls (uncles), n. pl. ' '
borow (borrow), v. ' '
bùses (buses), n. pl. ' '
bay (buy), v. ' '
bedrüms (bedrooms), n. pl.' '
bangk (bank), n. ' '
baths (baths), n. pl. ' '
bròdhèr (brother), n. ' '
buks (books), n. pl. ' '
chek (check), n. ' '
chùrch (church), n. ' '
dheèr (there), adv. ' '
dhat (that), adj. sing. and pl. ' '
drùg stör (drug store), n. ' '
els (else), adj. ' '
änts (aunts), n. pl. ' '
fädhèr (father), n. ' '
faynd (find), v. ' '
famìli (family), n. ' '
frï (free), adj. ' '
God (God), p.n. ' '
get (get), v. ' '
grandfädhèr (grandfather), n. ' '
grandmòdhèr (grandmother), n. ' '
hospitàl (hospital), n. ' '
haws (house), n. ' '
hayjïn (hygiene), n. ' '
hayjînik (hygienic), adj. ' '
help (help), n. ' '
kärs (cars), n. pl. ' '
kash (cash), v. ' '
Keymärt (K-mart), p.n. ' '
kichèn (kitchen), n. ' '
lùki (lucky), adj. ' '
laybreri (library), n. ' '
lamps (lamps), n.pl. ' '
letèrs (letters), n. pl. ' '
mòdhèr (mother), n. ' '
mòni (money), n. ' '
medìsìn (medicine), n. ' '
magàzïns (magazines), n. pl. ' '
naw (now), adv. ' '
neybòrhud (neighborhood), n. ' '
pakijes (packages), n. pl. ' '
powst ofis (post office), n. ' '
restàrànt (restaurant), n. ' '
rüm (room), n. ' '
send (send), v. ' '
sik (sick), adj. ' '
sistèr (sister), n. ' '
skül (school), n. ' '
stör (store), n. ' '
strïts (streets), n.pl. ' '
süpèrmorkèt (supermarket), n. ' '
thing (thing), n. ' '
trïs (trees), n. pl. ' '
Wolmärt (Wal*Mart), p.n. ' '
wòrshìp (worship), v. ' '
yärd (yard), n. ' ' 

Fädhèr.-- Wàt yü faynd in ov-yü [yu's] neybòrhud? (What you find in of-you neighborhood?) ' ?'
Sòn.-- Wel, for wòn thing dher bï skül in ov-ay [ay's] neybòrhud. (Well, for one thing, there be school in of-I neighborhood.) ' .'
Fädhèr.-- And wàt els? (And what else?) ' ?'
Sòn.-- Dher bï bangk, laybreri, powst ofis, süpèrmorkèt, drag stör, hospitàl, restàrànt, Keymärt, Wolmärt, chùrch. (There be bank, library, powst office, supermarket, drug store, hospital, restaurant, K-mart, Wal*Mart, church.) ' .'
Fädhèr.-- Veri gud. Wer yü gow kash chek or borow mòni? (Very good. Where you go [to] cash check or borrow money?) ' ?'
Sòn.-- Tu bangk. (To bank.) ' .'
Fädhèr.-- Wàt yü faynd in laybreri? (What you find in library?) ' ?]
Sòn.-- Buks and magàzïns dhat yü borow fri. (Books and magazines that you borrow free.) ' .'
Fädhèr.-- Wer yü gow send letèrs or pakijes tu ov-yü frends? (Where you go send letters or packages to of-you friends?) ' ?'
Sòn.-- Ay gow tu powst ofis. (I go to post office.) ' .'
Fädhèr.-- Wer yü gow bay medìsìn and hayjînik guds. (Where you go [to] buy medicine and hygienic goods?) ' .'
Sòn.-- Tu drag stör. (Tu drug store.) ' .'
Fädhèr.-- Gud. Naw, wer yü gow bay füd? (Good. Now, where you go buy food? ' ?'
Sòn.-- Tu süpèrmorkèt. (To supermarket.) ' .'
Fädhèr.-- Wer yü gow get help wen yü bï sik? (Where you go get help when you be sick?) ' ?'
Sòn.-- Tu hospitàl. (To hospital.) ' '
Fädhèr.-- Wer yü bay lamps, things for kichèn, for haws and for yärd wòrk? ( Where you buy lamps, things for kitchen, for house and for yard work? ' ?'
Sòn.-- Keymärt or Wolmärt. (K-mart or Wal*Mart.) ' .'
Fädhèr.-- And wer yü gow wòrshìp ov-yü God? (And where you go worship of-you God? ' ?'
Sòn.-- Tu chùrch. (To church.) ' .'
Fädhèr.-- Wàt els yü faynd in ov-yü neybòrhud? (What else you find in of-you neighborhood? ' ?'
Sòn.-- Strïts, kärs, bùses, trïs, hawses, frends, famìlis. (Streets, cars, buses, trees, houses, friends, families.) ' .'
Fädhèr.-- Wàt bï famìli? (What be family?) ' ?'
Sòn.-- Fädhèr, mòdhèr, sistèr, bròdhèr, grandfädhèr, grandmòdhèr, ùngkèls, and änts. (Father, mother, sister, brother, grandfather, grandmother, uncles, and aunts.) ' .'
Fädhèr.-- Wàt rüms bï in ov-yü [yu's] haws? (What rooms be in of you [you's] house?) ' ?'
Sòn.-- In ov-ay [ay's] haws wi hav kichèn, living rüm, famìli rüm, dayning rüm, thrï bedrüms, tü baths. (In of-I house we have kitchen, living room, family room, dining room, three bedrooms, two baths.) ' .'
Fädhèr.-- Yü gud boy. Ay bï lùki hav yü for sòn. (You good boy. I be lucky have you for son.)  ' .'

Passenger Jet


byütifùl - ' ' hùzbànd - ' ' lòv - ' '
big - ' ' wotèr - ' ' wosh - ' '
nyü - ' ' shop - ' ' ask - ' '
helthi - ' ' lemòneyd - ' ' weèr - ' '
dray - ' ' peypèr - ' ' mït - ' '
wörm - ' ' pen - ' ' rayt - ' '
kùp - ' ' strït - ' '
adrés - ' ' avènü - ' '
telèfown - ' ' nùmbèr - ' '
arïà - ' ' kowd - ' '

'When it's necessary to indicateMacchu Picchu, Peru the length of a vowel, there will be two dots above it. Compare meet ` ' and meat ` ' (both words containing a long vowel ï [mït], with mit ` ' [mit] (that has a short i). For the stress accent we use the sign ['] to indicate the accented vowel. We need to stress here that the accentuation in a word, along with the long vowels therein, need to be learned in each word separately, and this is done best by having a native speaker of English illustrate their pronunciation. There are as yet no hard and fast rules in English for helping to learn accentuation.' 


('The answers are found towards the end of the lesson.')


('With the sentences in your language, as a helpful guide within the parentheses, you will also find their equivalents in normal English.')

1.' .' (Healthy boy drink warm milk.)

2. ' .' (I buy medicines and hygienic things in drug store.)

3. ' .' (In of-I [I's] house we have kitchen, living room, family room, dining room, three bedrooms, and two baths.)

4. ' .' (I go in car to supermarket buy food.) 

'adj. noun' 'adj. noun'
helthi boy ('sing.') drink ('pres.') wörm milk. ('sing.')
helthi boys ('pl.') drinked ('past') wörm milks. ('pl.')
wil-drink ('fut.')

'NEGATION: 'NOT (not) placed before an adjective or a noun indicates a negation, but it can also indicate the opposite quality of a word if it is joined to it.'

LÖNG = ' '  NOTLÖNG = ' '
TÖL = ' ' NOT-TÖL = ' '
gud = (good), ' ' notgúd = (bad), ' '
klïn = (clean), ' ' notklîn = (dirty), ' '
helthi = (healthy), ' ' nothélthi = (sick, ill), ' '
lòv = (love), ' ' notl`óv = (hate), ' '
frend = (friend), ' ' notfrénd = (enemy), ' '
wörm = (warm), ' ' notwôrm = (cold), ' '

'EXERCISES (5-10)'

'Translate the following sentences from your language into Transitional English. As help to you, we provide the normal English spelling version as well.'

5. ' .' (Boy be nothealthy [sick].)

6. ' .' (Father speak with son.)

7. ' .' (There not be post office in of-I [I's] neighborhood.)

8. ' .' (Grandmother and mother not go to church this morning.)

9. ' .' (Not good boy not go to school.)

10. ' .' (I not drink notwarm [cold] coffee.)

'When the word NOT (NOT) is placed before any verb, it makes that verb negative, representing an action that does not happen, has not happen, and will not happen. NOT HAV (not have) ` '; NOT MEYK (not make) ` '; NOT DÜ (not do) ` ' .'


'We present below the personal pronouns with the verb TU_BÏ (to be), ' '. ALL THE VERBS OF TRANSITIONAL ENGLISH FOLLOW THIS PATTERN.'

'In Standard English the infinitive is usually accompanied by the preposition (to) [tu], as in (to be) [tu_bï], but in Transitional English it is preferable to avoid using the prefix [tu], and the infinitive becomes identical to its root [bï] ' '. If we find it necessary to prefix the preposition to the verb, then we connect it to the verb by means of an underline: tu_bï.'

'THE PRESENT TENSE:         The verb bï (to be)'

'Standard English' 'TE' 'Your language'
I am ay bï ' '
you are yü bï ' ' 
he is hi bï ' '
she is shi bï ' '
it is it bï ' '
we are wi bï ' '
you are yü bï ' '
they are dhey ' '

BÏ - 'is the equivalent of (to be) which in {translator's language is' '}. This form of the infinitive also serves in Transitional English as the conjugated, personalized verb form with all the personal pronouns in the present tense.'

'The words in Transitional English are pronounced in exactly the same manner as in Standard English. The Transitional English pronunciation in the TE alphabet is followed generally by Standard English orthography within parentheses. The words within single quotation marks represent the equivalents in the learners' own languages. They are left blank here, so that this text can be adapted to any language simply by having a knowledgeable person fill in the appropriate equivalents within the indicated parentheses, and thus make this text available to others for learning English quickly and easily.'

        shi (she) ' '
        it (it) ' '
        (you) ' '


'Now that we have the necessary pronouns':

ay       yü       hi       shi       it       wi       yü       dhey

'we can form the possessive adjectives by prefixing the preposition ov (of) ' ' joined with the appropriate pronoun with a hyphen. An alternative form of the possessive adjective is constructed by using the pronoun and simply adding a suffix of an apostrophe and s to it: ('s):'

ov-ay ov-yü ov-hi ov-shi ov-it ov-wi ov-yü ov-dhey
ay's yü's hi's shi's it's wi's yü's dhey's
(my) (your) (his) (her) (its) (our) (your) (their)
' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '


'The same prepositional prefix used above ov- (of) ` ' is also used to express possession for nouns: ov boy buk (the boy's book), ` '; ov-John book (John's book); ` '. The ALTERNATE form [with apostrophe and s = 's] is also used with nouns in TE, just as in SE: boy's buk (boy's book), ' '; Jon's buk (John's book),'

'EXERCISES (11-24)'

'Below, you will see sentences in your own language followed by their equivalents within parentheses in SE orthography. Using the latter as an aid, translate the sentences in your language into Transitional English. Then check your answers with those found on page 22.'

11. ' .' (Sister cleaned house today.) Example: Sistèr klïned haws tùdéy.

12. ' .' (We not have sugar.) Example: Wi not hav shugàr.

13. ' .' (Please, of-I [I's] son, give to I cream and sugar for of-I [I's] coffee.

14. ' .' (We go to bank cash check. We need much money.)

15. ' .' (When we be healthy, we not go to hospital. When we be sick, we need medicine.)

16. ' .' (American girl love Mexican boy.)

17. ' .' (They live and work in Lexington.)

18. ' ?' (What be of-they address? Where they live?

19. ' .' (Of-they [They's] address be 7204 Hope Avenue. They live in of-we [we's] neighborhood.)

20. ' ?' (You live here? What be of-you [you's] address?)

21. ' .' (Of-I [I's] address be 312 Hope Avenue, in of-they same neighborhood.)

22. ' ?' You have telephone? What be of-it [it's] number?

23. ' .' (Of-I [I's] telephone number be area 123/ 456-7890.

24. ' .' (Thank you very much. Good luck. See you tomorrow morning.)

'ANSWERS to Exercises (1-24)'

1. Helthi boy drink wörm milk.
2. Ay bay medìsìns and hayjînik things in drag stör.
3. In ov-ay [ay's] haws wi hav kichèn, living rüm, famìli rüm, dayning rüm, thrï bedrüms, and tü baths.
4. Ay gow in kär tu süpèrmorkèt bay füd.
5. Boy bï not helthi. [Boy bï sik.]
6. Fädhèr spïk with sòn.
7. Dher not bï powst ofis in ov-ay [ay's] neybòrhud.
8. Grandmòdhèr and mòdhèr not gow tu chùrch dhis mörning.
9. Not gud boy not gow tu skül.
10. Ay not drink notwôrm [kowld] kofi.
11. Sistèr klïned haws tùdéy.
12. Wi not hav shugàr.
13. Plïz, ov-ay [ay's] sòn, giv tu ay krïm and shugàr for ov-ay [ay's] kofi.
14. Wi gow tu bangk kash chek. Wi nïd mùch mòni.
15. Wen wi bï helthi, wi not gow tu hospitàl.
16. Àmérikàn gìrl lòv Meksikàn boy.
17. Dhey liv and wòrk in Lexington.
18. Wàt bï ov-dhey [dhey's] adrés? Wer dhey liv?
19. Ov-dhey [dhey's] adrés bï 7204 Hop Avènü. Dhey liv in ov-wi [wi's] neybòrhud.
20. Yü liv hièr? Wàt bï ov-yü [yu's] adrés?
21. Ov-ay [ay's] adrés bï 312 Hop Avènü in ov-dhey [dhey's] seym neybòrhud.
22. Yü hav telèfown? Wàt bï ov-it [it's] nùmbèr?
23. Ov-ay [ay's] telèfown nùmbèr bï arïà 123/ 456-7890.
24. Thangk yü Veri mùch. Gud lùk. Sï yü tùmórow mörning. 

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Last revised on 24 April 2001